Elements of the Indus Valley Civilization

History:
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest known ancient civilization. The Indus Valley is one of the world’s earliest urban civilizations. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses.The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization.

Religion:
Some Indus valley seals show swastikas. The earliest evidence for elements of Hinduism are alleged to have been present before and during the early Harappan period. Phallic symbols interpreted as the much later Hindu Shiva lingam have been found in the Harappan remains.

Social stratification:
In the Indus valley, social structures consisted of an upper class that had priests and soldiers. There was a middle class that had farmers and tradesmen while the lower class consisted of servants and casual labourers.

Arts and humanities:
A number of gold, terra-cotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing poses reveal the presence of some dance form. Also, these terra-cotta figurines included cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs.

Science and Technology:
The people of the Indus Civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. A comparison of available objects indicates large scale variation across the Indus territories. Their smallest division was approximately 1.704 mm, the smallest division ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age. Harappan engineers followed the decimal division of measurement for all practical purposes, including the measurement of mass as revealed by their hexahedron weights.